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The great American license plate map: 50 years of plates

The Great American License Plate Quiz

From initials painted on a bumper to specialty plates supporting the Quilting Association of Montana, the license plate is on quite the journey.

The modern license plate blurs the line between vehicle identification, advertising, fundraising, and personal expression. Lavish compared to the days of handmade leather, porcelain, and soybean plates (animals tended to prefer the soybean).

See the evolution of your state’s license plate and let us know your favorite. We’re going to go out on a limb and say it’s not this gem from the Blue Sky State:


Oklahoma License Plate

Photo source http://jalopnik.com/the-ten-worst-state-license-plates-909195524

The First License Plate

Plates were introduced in Paris in the late 19th century to lend credibility to a machine violently shaking forward due to gasoline explosions about 2 feet from its human operator (i.e. a car). In 1901, New York became the first state to require license plates, and in 1903, Massachusetts issued the first state made plates. By 1918, all states required some sort of license plate on personal vehicles.


First License Plate


Initially made of porcelain, the earliest license plates were prone to cracking and chipping. In the US materials varied drastically before steel plates became federally required.


1956: The Standardized Plate

With highways going up across the nation, automobiles became the premiere mode of transportation for post-war America. This led to a mass reform of  the Department of Motor Vehicles and auto licensing and registration. Aluminum was chosen for its durability and low cost, and most plates were already the now mandated size of 12 in. by 6 in.

For the next 15 years license plates remained relatively simple. Many only listed the state, year, slogan, and number.

License Plates in 1969

It’s 1969. America reached the moon, The Brady Bunch debuted, Route 66 was replaced by President Eisenhower’s Interstate Highway Act, and FLOWER POWER! But license plates remained rather vanilla.

What did your state’s license plate look like in 1969?


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1969 License Plate Map


Going Digital and the Specialty Revolution

License plates changed significantly in the early 1970’s when 3M introduced Scotchlite, a reflective sheet that sticks to aluminum. This new technology made placing graphics and other imagery on license plates easy and cheap. The result: some appealing and some appalling designs.

Ok, you’ve made it through the 80s designs that tried to balance new technology and classic practicality. 1990 brings you Windows 3.0 and Patrick Swayze’s prowess on the pottery wheel. Let’s see how the license plates fared:

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1990 License Plate Map

With new printing technology, states also began to offer specialty plates to support charities, sports teams, state tourism, and more. Florida alone has 123 different specialty plates to choose from, and West Virginia has no less than 10 plates devoted to NASCAR.

Every state has license plates dedicated towards environmental protection, charities, and foundations. Most require a donation and have an extra issuance fee. Those fees add up: In Nevada alone, specialty plates raised more than $50 million from 1998 to 2005.

Top 10 Oldest License Plates in Use

Many states update their designs at least once per decade. The states that don’t possess simple, iconic designs. These states got it right long ago and, despite minor updates, decided not to mess with success:

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Top 10 License Plate


Honorable Mention: Although the background scenery and color has changed drastically on Wyoming’s license plate, the rider and bucking horse image has been a staple since 1937.


Wyoming License Plate


License Plates in the Modern Age

After 60 years of professional artists tinkering with license plate designs, what are we left with? Well, it’s all mostly the same with the addition of a few “.coms.” Are they getting worse? Is it an example of functionality over aesthetics? Or do you like the new designs/advertising?

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Modern License Plate

The Future of the License Plate

Police cruisers already have the ability to scan license plates with cameras that automatically checks for stolen vehicles or those owned by someone wanted by police. This system can scan over 700 plates per hour. But what about the future of physical license plates? After going largely unchanged over the past 60 years, are we due for a license plate built for modern times?

An American think tank invented a digital system that would link your car directly to a database of car registration records. If your car was unregistered or lacked insurance, your shiny Benz would light up like the 4th of July, alerting other drivers, and police, all about your illegal status.

Instead of using license plate scanners, your plates would flash “Stolen” or “Expired.”


Join the Debate!

What do you think? Are you proud to put your state’s license plate on your ride? Will wirelessly connected license plates make the world safer? Do you feel your right to privacy is encroached on? Do you wish you could just paint your initials on the bumper?


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Comment below.

License Plate photos (maps and featured image) source: http://www.15q.net/usindex.html

Honoring International Women’s Day

March 8th is International Women’s Day. Although relatively unheralded in the United States, this progressive women’s holiday is cherished in many nations and cultures.

  • Public holiday in 28 countries
  • Observed across 6 continents

International Women’s Day’s meaning ranges in different societies from a day of appreciation for women to a holiday for expanding women’s roles in all facets of society. The importance of strong female leadership and influence is not lost at Rawhide. Our female therapists, teachers, office staff, board members, and housemothers provide invaluable guidance and support to Rawhide’s mission.

And one leader stands out, mother to 351 sons, and Rawhide cofounder, Jan Gillespie.

History of International Women’s Day

It all began in New York City in 1908 as National Women’s Day. Later that year, a demonstration and strike was organized to call for better working conditions for female workers in New York’s garment industry, along with voting rights and other inequalities plaguing women. Two years later, the movement expanded into Western Europe. In 1975, the United Nations adopted International Women’s Day as a day of vital importance.

From men gifting yellow mimosas to women in Italy to massive demonstrations in Poland, International Women’s Day has many different faces. But they all have one goal: celebrating and advocating for the rights and influence of women.

Our Fearless Leader

We have countless stories of Jan Gillespie’s incredible passion and expertise for helping at-risk youth (and her beloved animals!). Jan initiated Rawhide’s partnership with NFL legend Bart Starr by suggesting they look up his number in the phone book and asking Bart directly. It worked.

Former at-risk youth and Rawhide guy Rodney LaCanne called Jan “the solid foundation of Rawhide.” She demanded respect and held every one of her Rawhide sons to high expectations, but she still gave far more than she received. She spent over 30 years as a housemother, spiritual guide, and friend to hundreds of kids in their darkest hours.

Jan international women's day

Without Jan Gillespie and the other wonderful women advancing our mission, Rawhide would be merely another great idea lost to time.

International Women’s Day 2017

2017 has two separate, but mutually advantageous themes: Women in the Changing World of Work (Planet 50-50 by 2030) and #BeBoldForChange. Both call for gender equality by not accepting anything but fair treatment.

Make a note to commemorate March 8th, 2017, whether you partake in a march, celebrate achievements of women, wear purple, or simply take some time to thank a special woman in your life.

Suffragette and women’s activist Alice Paul summed it up nicely nearly 100 years ago,

I never doubted that equal rights was the right direction. Most reforms, most problems are complicated. But to me there is nothing complicated about ordinary equality.

Hopefully when the next century rolls around, there will be no dispute.


What can you do to love yourself?

Vain. Arrogant. Prideful. Narcissistic. We tend to use these negative terms when describing someone full of self love. Instead, we value those who are completely altruistic and humble. But to love yourself and selflessness are not mutually exclusive.The concept of sacrificing for the betterment of others is admirable, but constantly sacrificing can have devastating consequences. You may end up resenting those you are sacrificing for or lose sight of your goals and ambitions.

Join us to find the self love your life needs.

What does it mean to love yourself?

Self love is an understanding of who you are and genuinely enjoying that discernment.

We all have things we want to improve, and by all means seek out ways to improve, but learning to accept the things out of your hands and allowing yourself to be happy must be your priority: Don’t “act” around others, be yourself, find your style and own it, and learn to say no to things you don’t like or don’t want to do.

How do you treat your mind, body, and soul?

Take time to reflect on the different ways you love yourself. How well do you really know yourself?

Do you treat yourself how you want your friends and family to treat you?

Would you be friends with you?

Do you deny yourself opportunities to be happy?

Are you constantly setting unattainable goals?

Are you surprised by your answers? Or does it confirm an inclination you’ve had about neglecting your personal needs? Self love doesn’t mean tuning out the needs of others; it means including your needs in with the caring, benevolent attitude you already have towards others.  You could go crazy and buy designer sunglasses or a new pair of boots, but that won’t hold you over for long. A more rewarding option: go for a walk and eat a nutritious meal. These simple daily tasks can make your heart grow a little fonder:

Exercise | De-clutter your space (work, home, car) | Go a day without comparing yourself to someone else | 

Get off social media, especially photo sharing sites as they can lead to low self-esteem | Create something (ex. painting, baking, gardening) | 

Go through a day in slow-motion: walk slowly, eat slowly (take time to enjoy living) | Get your fears out of your head and onto a page |

Take a nap/sleep in | Meditate |

Whatever you do, do it for yourself.

Integrate self love into self identity

Some facets of learning to love yourself aren’t quick fixes. Ultimately this is a life-long endeavor. And it’s not always going to be easy.

Learn to forgive yourselfWe all make mistakes or have things that make us cringe with embarrassment. It’s time to let go and forge new experiences. Don’t let your past transgressions define you.

Understand that not everyone is going to like you. Stop trying to live up to others’ expectations or perceptions of you. Spend time with people who make you feel good.

Stand up for what you believe in. If your thoughts and ideas make you stick out like a sore thumb, so be it. Project your values and morals in everything you do, whether it’s at work or at the family dinner table.

There are many ways to love yourself. There will inevitably be times when you are ashamed of an action you took, but by molding a foundation of self love, you can overcome those past slip-ups.

Trouble seeing a future where you love yourself?

Are you still at a loss of where to begin? Or do you desire a deeper level of support to develop the level of self love you desire? If yes, consider reaching out to someone for help. Rawhide has outpatient counselors throughout eastern Wisconsin specializing in many of the issues keeping people from accepting and loving themselves. Take action now. Life’s too short to experience it without love.

CDV, domestic violence and the children in its shadow

Until a few years ago, a term describing children witnessing domestic abuse/violence did not exist. As a result, research or understanding of its traumatic effects is grossly underreported. Every 9 seconds a woman is abused by an intimate partner and 70% of women worldwide will experience domestic abuse. As a result, 1/3 of American children have witnessed violence between their parents.

We see that abusers overwhelming come from abusive background, and thus only replicate patterns they have learned during their childhoods.

Melanie-Angela Neuilly Professor of Criminology

The research we do have is startling. Childhood Domestic Violence or CDV leads to deficiencies in cognitive skills, lower life expectancy, and a higher risk of developing violent behaviors. Children impacted by CDV need our help.

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CDV Domestic Abuse Twitter iconClick to Tweet

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Defining domestic violence

Domestic violence is difficult to define. It can take various forms and is often tied to intent to cause harm. Most commonly, it is described as a pattern of abusive behavior used to gain power or authority over a partner in an intimate relationship. The goal of an abuser is to control their partner:

Intimidate | Manipulate | Humiliate

Isolate | Frighten | Coerce

Blame | Hurt | Injure

When people think of domestic violence, they may think of a man physically assaulting their female intimate partner. But the scars run much deeper than a victim’s skin. Abuse can come in the following forms:

Physical abuse consists of hitting, throwing, grabbing, etc. It can also include pinching, poking, and any unwanted touching. 

Sexual abuse is any unwanted sexual behavior from one person to another.

Emotional abuse describes the terrorization of one’s feelings. This includes withholding love, making someone feel sad or isolated, etc.

Psychological abuse describes any actions that inspire to initiate self-degradation or a lack of self-esteem in a partner.

Economic abuse includes strictly controlling finances, forcing a partner to be financially dependent, and dictating all spending.

Even with these definitions of abuse, pinpointing what is domestic abuse, and what are bumps in the road is complicated.

Living with a monster

A violent relationship often contains love, romance, and happiness. Likewise, a relationship can turn abusive at any point and often leaves the victim confused and conflicted on whether to stay or leave. Even when the victim decides to get out of the relationship, the threat of violence or hardship is not always over. Susan Sorenson, a professor of social policy, says:

We tell women repeatedly to leave the abuser, leave the abuser, leave the abuser, but when she does she increases her risk of homicide.

The effects and after-effects of domestic violence are crippling and the fear of asking for help only compounds. In 57% of mass shootings, the perpetrator targeted either a family member or an intimate partner first and 8 million days of paid work lost by women due to abuse 3rd leading cause of homelessness for families. However,  only 25% of physical assaults are reported to police and only 34% of victims get medical help

Many survivors of domestic violence report bouts of abuse interwoven into a loving, trusting, fun filled relationship. Victims can convince themselves that their significant other is not a violent person, simply kind and gentle with hints of aggression, often thinking:

He doesn’t really mean it when he hurts me.

Signs of domestic abuse

Abuse is so common that it often goes unchecked, or seen as a normal aspect of a relationship. 3,802,800 women have been abused by an intimate partner and 20,000 calls are made daily to domestic violence hotlines. But you can help lower these startling figures by looking for warning signs. It is very unlikely that you will receive direct confirmation, but letting them know you sense something’s not right could open communication.

Every relationship with domestic violence is complex and different, but below are some common warning signs.

Hiding bruises/marks | Disappears from work/social life

Gives up hobbies and friends | Always checking in and asking for permission

Making excuses for partners erratic behavior | Dramatic shift in disciplining children

If you notice any of the above, inform them you are willing to help. Just having someone they trust can go a long way.

Exposure to children, CDV

CDV (childhood domestic violence) is any domestic abuse/violence witnessed by someone under the age of 18. Paralleling domestic violence statistics, the abuse witnessed is most commonly from a father figure towards the child’s mother. Calling CDV widespread is an understatement:

5 million children witness domestic violence every year in the USA

275 million CDV victims every year internationally

40 million Americans over the age of 18 witnessed domestic violence as children

They call children of domestic abuse victims invisible victims because they are around the abuse, but often do not encounter it directly. But just because a child doesn’t feel the violence first-hand, doesn’t mean it doesn’t leave a profound impact. One child witness recounted,

I wouldn’t say anything, I would just sit there…like I was just sitting there, listening to a TV show or something.

Besides seeing, children are affected by hearing, observing, and feeling domestic violence. The lifelong physical problems associated with CDV are distressing:


These invisible victims have very visible burdens. That added weight and anxiety can produce dangerous beliefs and views about relationships and morals.

Violent outcomes from CDV

When violence is constant, it becomes the norm. A child witness may associate violence with intimate relationships or view those abused as weak.

Unhealthy relationships are normal | Use violence as a means to get something | Viewing women as the inferior sex

Believing that fighting means you’re strong | Mom is at fault for making dad angry/not protecting children

With these views encroaching on developing minds, violence is often repeated:

  • 3x more likely to repeat the domestic violence they witnessed
  • 74% more likely to commit a violent crime
  • 75% of boys who witness their mothers being beaten were later identified as having demonstrable behavior problems
  • Up to 40% of chronically violent teenagers were exposed to extreme domestic violence
  • 63% of all boys, age 11-20, who commit murder, kill the man who abused their mother


These children are programmed at a young age to treat violence as just another aspect of life. Dangerous behavior is not only a threat to society, but to the very children where it manifests. CDV victims are at a high-risk of self-harm as 6x more likely to commit suicide. CDV survivor Tannetta Elliott, whose mother was murdered by an intimate partner, spoke about living with domestic violence in her home:

Being a child of domestic violence is like a death in itself. It’s like your life is being taken. Sometimes I used to say, ‘Maybe I should have taken that bullet.’

With the prevalence of domestic violence and its profound effects on children, the situation looks grim. But it is not irreversible.

How to help children

Unlike domestic abuse victims, warning signs for CDV are often easily noticeable. They change as the child ages and uses different methods to cope with the turmoil at home:

Preschool – Regressive behaviors (ex. thumb-sucking), anxiety with strangers

School Age – Self-blame, violent outbursts, regressive behaviors

Adolescents – Truancy, drug abuse, sexual activity

The child experiencing domestic violence is trying to understand how normal relationships work. That’s why priority number one is to prevent normalization of domestic violence. Show them how a healthy relationship works. Start by being their friend, someone they can trust. The courts and law enforcement are also getting involved as 23 states and Puerto Rico have adopted laws addressing violence committed in front of children.

Listen | Never make promises you cannot keep

Introduce them to safe hobbies/activities | Build on child’s cultural background

Find anchor (stable) family members to spend time with the child

Reinforce examples of positive relationships, and use these phrases often:

Violence is not okay | It’s not your fault | It is not your job to prevent or change domestic violence

Get help

In an emergency dial 911.

National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-7233 or 1-800-787-3224

CDV survivors are finally starting to get the help they need. As awareness grows, and survivors continue to share their experiences, the crippling effects of CDV are starting to slow. Together we can help the next generation put domestic violence in the rearview mirror and develop healthy, loving relationships.

11 safe driving tips that help prevent accidents

Cars are really smart these days. They tell you when you change lanes, self-park, and some even automatically brake if the road is obstructed. But even with recent safety advancements, driving is still dangerous. Read on to discover what to do in driving emergencies and general sound driving practices. These safe driving tips can keep you and your car out of harm’s way.

1. Accelerate slowly if your tire explodes

When you feel a tire give out, your first reaction is to slam on the brakes. Not only is this a terrible idea if there is traffic behind you, but it could also cause your car to fishtail and lose control. According to Popular Mechanics, accelerate moderately to bring your car under control and then coast to slow down, coming to a stop off the side of the road with your hazard lights on.

2. Test your emergency brake regularly

The emergency brake seems like an unnecessary feature with most automatic transmission equipped cars. But what happens when you’re barreling down the highway and your brakes go spongy? You’re going to want that emergency brake. Your emergency brake works separate from your hydraulic brake system, using steel cables to pull the brake pads tight. Those cables can rust and deteriorate if not used occasionally. So the next time you park, pull on that unnecessary lever between the front seats.

3. What to do if your brakes fail

It’s one of those safe driving tips you hope you never need. And in reality, brakes rarely completely fail. It may feel like they’re gone, but if you really push hard on the brake pedal you should have something left. You can also slightly apply your emergency (or parking) brake. If a true emergency, downshift in a manual and, if an option, do the same on an automatic. You will remain safely in control of your car while slowing down. Slowly migrate to the side of the road with your hazard lights on.

4. Properly adjust side (wing) mirrors

We have all come to accept that there are certain blind spots on every car. Side mirrors just cannot capture everything. But what if I told you, they’re just adjusted inappropriately? To gain a better view, turn those mirrors so your own car is just out of view. Voila! No more cranking your neck before every lane change. And more importantly no blind spots!

Wing mirrors: Safe Driving Tips

5. Keep your headlights on at all times

Many newer cars have daytime running lights. This feature drastically improves your car’s visibility to other drivers and pedestrians. If you do not have running lights and the weather turns cloudy, rainy, or foggy pop on those headlights.

6. No tailgating

Remember that pesky 2 second rule your driving instructor kept reminding you about? Turns out he/she might have actually known a thing or two. Nearly 33% of all crashes are at least partially caused by tailgating and following too closely is illegal in most states. So keep some distance in front of you.

You’re not auditioning for The Fast and the Furious 17 (seriously, they’re still making these?).

7. Check your oil every two weeks (or sooner)

Back when gas station attendants filled the gas tank for you, they also checked your oil. This was not just done as a way to get extra tips. Driving with a low oil level or dirty, cloudy oil is extremely dangerous. Check your oil monthly, at the very least. Wipe your dipstick on a white cloth/rag/paper towel. Note any color other than amber or light brown. This is the most basic preventative maintenance everyone should practice.

oil maintenance: Safe Driving Tips

8. Assemble a proper emergency kit

Even on short trips around town, an emergency kit can come in handy. Some basic items could save your life, or at the very least some precious time, especially if you live in a harsh climate.
What to pack:

Foam tire sealant | Flashlight | Jumper cables

Blanket | Kitty litter (for getting unstuck in snow/ice)

Industrial strength tape | First-aid kit | Basic tool kit

Reflective traffic triangles (place behind and in front of your vehicle if stopped)

9. Never drive drowsy

Driving might seem like an easy thing to do, but it becomes a bit trickier when you fall asleep. Drowsy drivers are responsible for over 72,000 car crashes and 800 deaths every year. If you find yourself blinking or yawning excessively, or if you cannot remember the last few miles, pull over immediately.

10. Don’t text and drive

We’ve all seen the commercials and ads about tragic outcomes from teens texting while driving. And they’re not just to scare you: texting and driving is a borderline epidemicOver 40% of teens admit they text while driving. Just put that phone down when driving; it could save your life considering 1 in 4 accidents are caused by texting behind the wheel.

11. Most important safe driving tips: Give yourself ample time

This is one of the most overlooked safe driving tips. We all know that driver, weaving in and out of lanes, slamming on the brakes, riding two feet behind your bumper. That’s just an accident waiting to happen. Relax and let them zoom ahead.
And if you find yourself wanting to save five minutes off your commute by recreating a scene from Smokey and the Bandit, just know it probably won’t end well.

Love Cars? Want to help America’s at-risk youth?

Sign up for our newsletter below to join the Rawhide family. We always have fresh content, like Safe Driving Tips, and updates about life on the ranch. Whether you like classic cars, information on social issues, or are interested in supporting at-risk youth, we have something for you.

4 steps to setting goals for the new year

Ahh, the much anticipated, and loathed, New Year’s resolutions. Everybody has them, but does anyone remember what they were when next December rolls around? If you are one who has those lofty goals still tacked on your wall, then you deserve a round of applause. Let’s explore positive and achievable plans for setting goals for the new year.

Shoot for the stars

Step 1: Entertain your wildest dreams. This is the fun part. Forget about possible limitations when setting goals for the new year to figure out what you really want to accomplish this year.

Do you want to ascend to upper management? | Support a charity? | Buy your own jet?

Write it down. And tell your friends and family or post it on social media. The more public your resolutions, the more inclined you’ll be to work at them.

Now break those dreams down

Step 2:  You have your goal. Now think: How can I meet that goal? Be specific and realistic in what you can accomplish. The more concrete and exact you get, the higher the chance you will meet your expectations. According to Psychology Today, the main reason setting goals for the new year fails is due to the fear of change and/or failure. To alleviate some pressure, focus on behaviors and actions that will lead you closer to attaining your goals. Focus on digestible tasks. Say you want to change careers, tasks could include:

Updating your resume | Networking with others in your desired field 

Taking courses at the local community college

Then break it down even further. To update your resume you need to gather your employment history and acquire references. To take a course, you will need to research which one will provide the most benefit. Harvard Business Review created a tool to help break your goals down into actionable tasks.

Set deadlines

Step 3: Decide what you can accomplish and when you can do it. This is where those resolutions can become a little frightening. Take it slow. Start with relatively easy tasks and work your way towards larger accomplishments.

Within 30 days: Develop a plan.

90 days: Complete small tasks (ex. updated resume)

6 months: Complete large tasks (ex. networking)

End of the year: Achieve your goal or at least making it more attainable

For the first 30 days, research college courses, volunteer opportunities, or look into different charities to sponsor. Whatever your goal is, take time to understand the ins and outs. The 30 day mark is also your chance to reevaluate long-term goals and adjust accordingly. Once you set your time frame, implement those small tasks and build upon them with each deadline you set at the beginning of the year. Succeeding is contagious. Once you get rolling, each passing deadline will not seem quite as daunting.

Step 4: Take some time to look at what you accomplished.

Did you meet your goals? | Did you at least make progress? | What went well? What didn’t?

If on the right track, give yourself a little reward. And think: What can you do to keep your momentum going into the next year?

Add supporting a charity to your 2017 new year’s resolutions

Helping others is commonly brought up when setting goals for the new year. We can get lost in fantasies of losing weight, going on a dream vacation, or buying a 1964 Aston Martin DB5 (ok, maybe that’s just me). But when thinking of ways to improve your life, consider looking into ways you can improve the lives of at-risk youth. Rawhide Boys Ranch offers a full-continuum of care for youth and families struggling to stay afloat.

Join us in passing along some of that New Year optimism to some young men and women in desperate need.

Strong work ethic built at Rawhide

“I was, I guess, a troubled youth; I had been in juvenile lockup about 10 or 12 times. There was no way I was going to make it,” Rodney recalled. Through a series of fortunate events he ended up in a large chateau on the Wolf River. And everything started to change.

“When I came to Rawhide there were actually people there to show me how to do it right.”

Building a strong work ethic

Back in the 70s Rawhide Boys Ranch was, well, an actual ranch. Rodney remarked, “Back then things were a little bit wilder, nothing like it is now.” He doesn’t mean that he was allowed to do whatever he pleased, but the setup was a bit different. The boys rode horses, drove cars, built barns, and chopped wood. It was more out of necessity since Rawhide was in its infancy and the number of staff and boys on ranch were much, much smaller than it is today. In 1973, Rodney graduated from Rawhide. He found some direction, but he is quick to point out it wasn’t all roses: “I didn’t just stop getting into trouble because I came to Rawhide. It took me a while.” But the lessons learned at Rawhide sent him in the right direction.

Good use

After leaving Rawhide, Rodney searched for a job. He went to work at a cattle farm, but quickly lost interest. Looking for a new challenge, he joined the Navy, where he traveled the world for 4 years. He ended up working at a power plant for 33 years and is now retired. Looking back on his career, Rodney said, “I’ve done good.” He attributes the success he’s had to the fresh start he got at Rawhide:

“The biggest thing was the strong work ethic; accept responsibility for rights and wrongs.” Laughing, he added, “Lord knows I cleaned a lot of barns.”

Learning to trust others

That strong work ethic came from watching and observing John Gillespie and the other men at the ranch. Rodney explained, “John could be real stern, but he could crack it up with the best of them.” The idea that life could be both fun and adhere to societal rules was new to Rodney. Trusting the Rawhide program was difficult, but rewarding:

“To a new guy, my first thing was ‘What is this here?’ I had all types of ideas. Let things happen and find out for yourself. If you don’t go with the program you won’t be here long, and this is the place you want to be.”

A lot of that trust was bridged by John’s wife, and Rawhide’s mother, Jan Gillespie. Rodney called her “the solid foundation of Rawhide.” She was loving and steadfast in her expectations of her guys. She wouldn’t waver, and left a lasting impression on Rodney.

Rawhide’s future is bright with your support

Rodney, along with thousands of former at-risk youth, continues to turn lessons and supportive relationships formed at Rawhide into productive and enjoyable lives. They say it takes a village to raise a child. At Rawhide, it takes more than what we provide on these 600 acres. They need you! And for over 50 years, supporters like you have always been there. Click below to see how you can help serve at-risk youth.

6 signs of transmission failure and how to prevent them

It’s the phrase every car owner dreads. But never fear; we’re here to help. Read on for signs of transmission failure to prevent damage from occurring and to keep your transmission running like new. Consistent transmission maintenance could save you $1000s.

What is a transmission?

A car’s transmission directs power created by the engine to the drive wheels, which in turn, rotate the wheels. Without a transmission your car doesn’t move. There are roughly more than 800 parts to an automatic transmission, each intricately placed and dependent on each other. Often when one part goes, the whole transmission goes. Hence, the soaring prices to repair a faulty transmission.

Transmission: Signs of Transmission Failure

Your transmission relies on automatic transmission fluid for cooling and lubrication. If you take care of your transmission fluid, your wallet will thank you later.

How to maintain an automatic transmission

First, there are steps you can take to dramatically reduce the risk of transmission failure. Regular maintenance and a vigil eye for warning signs can prevent signs of transmission failure from popping up.

  • Check the level and color of your transmission fluid every few months. Some cars have dipsticks for easy access, but others are closed systems and require a few tools or a mechanic. Refer to your owner’s manual.
  • Change your automatic transmission fluid every 30,000 to 60,000 miles. Make sure the transmission fluid pan is removed, cleaned, and a new filter is installed. Use only manufacturer recommended fluids and fill amounts.
  • Never switch from drive to reverse, or vice versa, while the car is still moving.
  • Accelerate smoothly to allow gears to change at the correct times.

While car repairs are inevitable, following these maintenance tips before any signs of trouble can at least help avoid the more costly ones.

Signs of transmission failure

Deciphering between a failing transmission and a multitude of other ailments your car could have is difficult. Signs of a wearing or under-performing transmission are often hard to miss, since the transmission plays such a vital and noticeable role in the actual movement of your car. The fix could be as simple as adding automatic transmission fluid. But if you notice any of the symptoms listed below, your best bet is to talk to a mechanic as soon as possible.

  1. Burnt or low transmission fluid. Transmission fluid should be a clear red or brown. If it is very dark or thick, have it changed immediately. If your transmission fluid is burnt you may also notice a sweet burning smell.
  2. Slipping or delayed response when accelerating. This can feel like your tires are spinning on ice or you will notice the rpm’s going up without your car moving. Gears should lock in immediately. If you notice a delay when applying pressure to your gas pedal, it is a sign of trouble.
  3. Stalling or refuses to move. This often means that a transmission or another vital component is on its last leg. Your car is unsafe and needs maintenance immediately.
  4. Leaking transmission fluid. If you notice a red liquid on the ground, get it looked at immediately. Low transmission fluid will lead to major transmission wear.
  5. Hard shifting. Automatic shifting is built to be smooth and nearly unnoticeable. If you feel a jerk or shake every time your car shifts, you need someone to inspect your transmission.
  6. Weird sounds when revving and shifting. Wearing transmissions sometimes give off a whining or clunking sound. This means metal is rubbing on metal. Not good.

Do not ignore the above mentioned signs of transmission failure. Early detection is your only chance to save your transmission.

Think Rawhide when it’s time to move on

A broken transmission is often a death sentence for most well-used cars. Costs of transmission repairs and replacements range from $1,000 to $8,000. When the time comes to cut your losses and move onto a more reliable and cost efficient ride, keep Rawhide in mind. We take vehicles in any condition to fund our at-risk youth treatment programs. Your old car can help transform a life at Rawhide.

Financial literacy 101 at Starr Academy fosters independent living

Teens have one of the largest disposable incomes of any age group. As a result, they are constantly bombarded with new ways to spend their money, and without a strong set of money management skills they are at high risk for lifelong financial insecurity.

99% of adults believe that financial literacy should be taught in schools, but only 4 states have a required financial class. Rawhide’s Starr Academy instructor Ted Selker sees this as a major problem. With his financial literacy 101 class, his goal for his students is clear:

Leave high school with the functional skills they need to function as an adult and live independently.

What is financial literacy?

When a person is financially literate they have skills and a basic understanding of how to use their monetary resources to live a financially sound life. In short, they know how to save, invest, and spend wisely. Across the United States, many struggle managing their money and investments. While certainly not an isolated problem among the younger generation, financial problems often stem from a lack of basic money management skills during teenage years.

Financial Literacy 101

Starr Academy’s About Face Program teaches students the skills they need to live fruitful lives.  As an important part of day-to-day life, finances are often discussed. Ted stressed the incredible importance of financial literacy for his students:

Financial literacy is the most important skill these guys need for independent living. If they can’t manage their money they’re not going to be able to take care of almost anything else.

The coursework focuses on hands-on tasks every financially comfortable adult has mastered. Ted gives them a foundation in best personal finance practices so they can make their money last:

Reducing risky behaviors such as carrying large debts | Creating a budget and sticking to it |

Knowing when to take out a loan and how loan interest accumulates

With their coursework, Starr Academy students are ahead of most high school students nationwide. Only 32% of teens know how credit card interest and fees work. 18% of 15 year-old Americans do not understand basic financial concepts, such as an invoice. Most of Ted’s  students spend five to six months learning personal finance, immersing themselves in hands-on activities:

Balancing checking accounts | Researching credit card rates and fees | Calculating interest rates |

financial literacy credit cards

Ted wants his students to, above all, understand how quickly debt and poor money management can destroy a life, and how quickly investing can improve a life. He proudly stated that most students really take to learning finances. Many students leave confident they can live independently and have enough money to someday retire. Ted said it’s important especially for at-risk youth and “something they’re not going to learn elsewhere.”

Parents can teach financial literacy

Finance educator Susan Beacham notes the increasing disconnect the younger generations have with money. With more online money management tools and almost complete absence of physical cash in most teen’s wallets, money is not seen the same way. This puts an increased importance on teaching teens to take an active interest in their financial health.

financial literacy balancing

Only about 40% of parents talk to their teens about financial responsibility. With nearly 45% of adults already admitting that they themselves do not always feel confident managing their finances, teens are fish out of water. A little instruction and guidance can go a long way in instilling financial responsibility in your teen. Stress the following topics when teaching financial literacy 101:

Where to open an account and what to put in? How does interest work?

Where to invest? Where can you get help?

Credit Cards. How do they work? What is a credit score?

What is a good loan? When to take out a loan.

Managing and Reducing Debt. What is refinancing? How to make a budget.

Educational resources for teens

The following websites can help your teen understand the ins and outs of personal finance in an informative and fun way.

Complete online financial education program

Learn about budgeting

Understand the value of a dollar

Financial Calculator

List of other resources

About Face and life skills

Rawhide’s About Face Program is a community service focused, military based residential program devoted to teaching at-risk youth life skills. For many, this is their first introduction to the day-to-day knowledge many of us take for granted.

The About Face program, while focused on equipping at-risk youth with skills to live independently, is centered on giving. Ted stresses to his students the importance of donating and giving back in his classroom. And outside the school, About Face instructors take the students on community service projects throughout Wisconsin.

Help us guide our young men on a path towards independent living and community service by making a contribution to support the About Face program. It’s a gift that will give back to communities forever.

5 step ultimate car maintenance checklist

Do you really need a new air filter? What about a transmission fluid flush? Can you go past 3,000 miles before another oil change? Car maintenance is confusing. At times, it seems every mechanic tells you something different. Whether you are trying to reduce wear on your new car or trying to squeeze every last mile out of your old jalopy, keep our car maintenance checklist handy to ensure you remain safe and on the road.

1. Wash your car often

The first car maintenance checklist step is to take care of your car’s exterior. Bug guts, bird droppings, and tree sap can all corrode paint when left on your car too long. This will diminish your car’s value and accelerate rusting. If you live in a cold climate or near the ocean, salt is your car’s worst nightmare. It gets into nooks in your wheel wells and undercarriage, slowly eating your car’s frame. Rinse your car free of salt regularly.

And don’t forget about your windshield, wiper blades, and headlights. You can’t drive if you can’t see the road.

  1. Take a fine piece of steel wool to the outside of your windshield. It will remove any stubborn bug parts.
  2. Replace your windshield wiper blades every 6-12 months.
  3. Remove dirt from your headlight covers, or replace if cloudy. Try this handy toothpaste trick to get a little more life out of your headlights.


2. So many moving parts

Car Maintenance Checklist - So many parts

Aaron “tango” Tang on Flicker

Car maintenance makes some want to run for cover. The threat of making something worse can turn car owners off from simple DIY car repairs. Below are car maintenance checklist repairs you can do with basic tools and an internet connection. Always consult your car’s operating manual for manufacturer recommendations.

Change air filter every 12,000 to 15,000 miles. Your engine needs clean air to function efficiently. Most car manuals show step-by-step instructions to replace your air filter. It often only requires a trip to the auto parts store and a screwdriver.

Change cabin air filter
every 12,000 to 15,000 miles. Requires a little more maneuvering, but still manageable for the DIY mechanic.

With every oil change, add the following to your car maintenance checklist:

Top off fluids (use manufacturer recommended fluids and fill levels).

Transmission Oil Engine Oil Coolant

Windshield Washer Power Steering

Inspect hoses and drive belts for fraying, holes, and tightness. Drive belts often need replacing between 60,000 and 90,000 miles.


Car Maintenance Checklist belts

3. Minor repairs

There are repairs and preventative maintenance nearly everyone can do on their own. Once a month check tire pressure, battery terminals, and Invest in a quality tire pressure gauge. Look in your car manual or the driver’s side door jamb for the recommended psi. Also check for cracks in the rubber or wearing tire tread. Low tire pressure and old tires are dangerous. 3,200 people are injured each year in crashes influenced by tire aging. Clean battery terminals to maintain a secure connection. Minimal deposits are normal for most batteries, but a large buildup can signify something is wrong with your battery. To clean, use baking soda and water or the Coca-Cola trick.

Install a new battery.
Most auto parts stores offer free battery testing, and some (Advanced Auto, Batteries Plus, etc.) will install a new one for free. But if you’re on your own, follow this guide.

5. A car maintenance checklist for your mechanic

For those of you ready to dig deeper into your car’s labyrinth of tubes and metal-spinning-things, you can take on the following tasks yourself. But for everyone else, and for those with cars seemingly built to discourage any home repairs, ask your mechanic next time you head in for an oil change.

Car Maintenance Checklist for Mechanic
About that oil and filter change… Most engine oil lasts longer than that sticker on your windshield says, but always complete according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Preventative maintenance is always the best policy to avoid costly repairs, stay safe, and reach optimal fuel efficiency.

Inspect spark plugs every 20,000 to 30,000 miles.

Check and replace transmission fluid according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Try to avoid a fluid flush as they sometimes cause damage.

Get an alignment and/or tire rotation if you feel the car pulling in a certain direction or if the steering wheel wobbles. Tire rotations are generally recommended every 5,000-8,000 miles.

Teaching Rawhide’s 100 point inspection

Rawhide guys have the chance to work with our mechanics inspecting donated vehicles. They gain valuable work experience and exposure to the auto maintenance profession. We rely on donations from Rawhide supporters to fund all of our programs. 83% of funds from the sales of donated vehicles directly fund our at-risk youth programs. When the time comes to part with your old ride, please consider donating to Rawhide. In addition to helping at-risk youth you will receive a top tax deduction.

17 community service ideas to make your teen love volunteering

Is your teen struggling to come up with community service ideas? With schools across the nation instituting mandatory (but still beneficial) community service hours, teens may see volunteering as a chore. Try to guide them away from that point of view. Play up the connection between volunteering and doing things they enjoy. Use this opportunity to turn your teen onto enjoyable volunteer work that appeals to their interests. It may not be as hard as you think.

Where to start?

Start the search looking for causes or volunteer opportunities that will give your teen a sense of accomplishment and direct contact with the people the service project is helping. Allow them to see the impact they can have on their neighbors’ lives.

Four steps to picking the right opportunity

Volunteer opportunities are nearly endless. This makes narrowing down your preferred options a daunting task. Follow these steps to help the most mutually beneficial community service ideas stand out:

  1. Do any community service ideas align with my hobbies?
  2. How can I use my skills to help others?
  3. Where is a major need in my community?
  4. Can I make the commitment this volunteer project requires?

Also, try to find mildly challenging opportunities that require problem solving; they tend to be more engaging.

17 community service ideas for teens

The following list will get your teen started with particularly rewarding and fun community service ideas.

1. Feed and take care of rescued and abandoned pets at an animal shelter.


2. Collect and distribute food at a food pantry to families needing assistance. Your local pantry can be found here or here.

3. Sort clothes or cashier at a St. Vincent de Paul, Salvation Army, or other thrift store that donates its proceeds.

4. Participate in church activities such as a Vacation Bible School or fundraisers.

5. Organize a blood drive at your school or community center/library. Someone needs blood every 2 seconds in the U.S. alone.

6. Participate in a charity run/walk. You can help register runners, distribute water and food, or set up the course.

7. Tutor either peers or younger students in a subject you are passionate and proficient in.

8. Coach a youth sports team. Youth clubs are always looking for assistants to work with their players.

9. Read and play games with senior citizens at an assisted living home. You might find you enjoy it more than they do.

10. You know that feeling of sitting down in a de-cluttered and newly clean room, admiring how nice it looks? This is better. Participate in, or organize, a trash cleanup day.

11. Volunteer for the Special Olympics. You can work with the athletes or as a day volunteer helping the competitions run smoothly.

12. Work for a state park or U.S. National Park near you. They have opportunities doing minor trail/park repairs and in customer service.



13. Socialize with hospital patients. For those patients without family to visit them, you could be a lifesaver.

14. Stock shelves and lead programs/events at your local library. Volunteers are increasingly vital to these important community resources.

15. Trick or Treat for UNICEF or Operation Gratitude on Halloween. Grab some friends, dress up, and collect money for children and veterans.

16. Cook or serve food with Meals on Wheels or a local soup kitchen. Nearly 90% of these facilities rely on volunteers.

17. Collect books and unused school materials at your school and donate them to The United Way or another charity.



It can be a lot easier and less intimidating to participate in some of these projects with friends. Once you feel more comfortable, branch out on your own and do things that fit in line with your personal interests.

Rawhide programs built on the community service model

Community service is one of the most important things Rawhide provides students. Our About Face Corps is a community service based program designed not only to teach our students core ethical values, but to instill in them a desire to help their neighbors. Past projects include:

Construction projects with Habitat for Humanity | Course construction for the Warrior Princess Mud Run | Installing archery targets at a local shooting range

Help us lift up our young men by donating to our About Face program. With your help we can help give our guys a lifetime of success and a commitment to strengthening our communities. It takes a village to raise a man; we cannot do this without you.

ACEs and child trauma leave lasting scars [INFOGRAPHIC]

Your child witnesses violence at school, but hardly reacts at all. You might think that the incident was merely one of many insignificant moments to your child, but research shows that particular Adverse Childhood Event (ACE) may alter the way your child reacts to daily stressors. Even more startling: With multiple ACEs, your child’s brain development may be stunted leading to a lack of self-awareness and cognitive deficiencies. ACEs put children at high risk for serious mental, physical, emotional, and social health complications.

(click to enlarge graphic)

ACEs and Child Trauma Leave Lasting Scars Infographic

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What are ACEs?

ACEs, or Adverse Childhood Experiences, are different for everyone, but in the broadest sense, they are negative moments or events that have the potential to leave lasting harmful effects on a child. ACEs come in many forms, from household dysfunction to witnessing violence. ACEs are important to identify due to their uncanny ability to mold and shape who our children grow up to be. When unchecked and unnoticed, ACEs can lead to a future of lifelong health concerns, risk aversion, passivity, and violence (both as a perpetrator and victim).

ACE expert Jane Ellen Stevens succinctly broke down the negative effects of ACEs on developing minds:

They respond to the world as a place of constant danger. With their brains overloaded with stress hormones and unable to function appropriately, they can’t focus on learning. They fall behind in school or fail to develop healthy relationships with peers or create problems with teachers and principals because they are unable to trust adults.



Researchers have identified three categories of ACEs:

Abuse Neglect | Household Dysfunction

Within these three categories are a plethora of experiences and events. To properly study how ACEs affect people as adults, researchers chose 10 types of childhood trauma and asked study participants to note whether or not they had experienced them as children.

The 10 types of trauma on the ACE test are:

Household substance abuse | Parental separation/divorce | Family member with a mental illness | Violence between parents/abuse of mother | Incarcerated household member | Psychological/emotional abuse | Physical Abuse | Sexual Abuse | Neglect

The ACE test

In the first ACE study, Dr. Vincent Felitti and Dr. Robert Anda devised a test. There were 10 questions, each pertaining to a different type of ACE. For every question with a “Yes” (meaning they had an ACE) the test taker received a one point. Sample Question:

Before your 18th birthday, did a parent or other adult in the household often or very often swear at you, insult you, put you down, or humiliate you? Or did they act in a way that made you afraid you might be physically hurt?

The test only counted types of ACEs, not the number or separate incidents of the same type of ACE. So, if they experience physical abuse 25 times, and no other types of experiences, their score would be 1. The goal of the test was to see how ACEs correlated with the test takers’ health. The results were shocking, and led to emotional moments between therapists and study participants.



ACE test results

When Dr. Anda got the first results back he was overcome with sadness. He said, “I saw how much people had suffered and I wept.” The study largely focused on the consequences of several different types of trauma. The 1995 study found that over 66% of participants had at least 1 ACE. Startling enough on its own, but that was only the beginning:

  • 22% had an ACE score of 3 or more
  • 12.5% had an ACE score of 4 or more


When they dug into the scores, researchers discovered that over a quarter of participants had experienced physical abuse, household substance use, economic hardship, or a combination of the three.

  • 28% experienced physical abuse
  • 27% saw household substance abuse
  • 26% experienced economic hardship


The study showed that many had been neglected in their childhood and over 1/5 were sexually abused:

  • 21% experienced sexual abuse
  • 15% were emotionally neglected
  • 10% physically neglected


After discovering how prevalent these ACEs were in people’s lives, Anda and Felitti looked for correlations between ACEs and mental and physical health concerns. What they found, led to some shocking, but profound and beneficial trends. Most notably: An almost exact correlation between childhood trauma and mental illnesses, chronic diseases, incarceration, and employment status.

Why do ACEs matter?

When an adverse childhood experience occurs, the child’s brain is flooded with adrenaline in what is often called “Fight or Flight”. While this reaction helps the child react to any immediate dangers, it becomes toxic when turned on for too long. When children are forced to constantly focus on surviving and avoiding harm, they are unable to focus on learning or developing skills to serve them in adulthood. Their ability to trust and relate to others never fully forms and they often experience depression, self-consciousness, and avoidance of challenges. This has a snowball effect where children may turn to self-medicating or other troublesome behaviors to deal with the pain. When 4 or more ACEs occur, students are 32x more likely to have learning or behavior problems in school.



People who experience childhood trauma tend to respond to daily stresses with high anxiety, or try to avoid stressors at all costs. This may include high pressure situations like giving a presentation at work, or more minor situations, like making small talk at a school fundraising event.

Health impact of multiple ACEs

A single adverse childhood experience can harm a child’s future by increasing the risk of homelessness, exposure to violence, and work absenteeism. When multiple ACEs happen, the likelihood of mental, physical, and social concerns goes up exponentially. Repeated abusive and traumatic situations often lead to Complex PTSD. This type of trauma happens before a child is allowed to fully develop cognitive maturity and an understanding of how to respond to stressful situations. A person suffering from Complex PTSD will have trouble regulating their stress hormones and responding to normal situations as if they were threatening situations. These reactions can lead to chronic health issues and dangerous behaviors to deal with stress. A score of 2 or more on the ACE test, when correlated with test taker’s health records showed the following compared to someone with a score of 0:

  • 3x more likely to have attempted suicide
  • 4x more likely to consider themselves alcoholics
  • Nearly 3x more likely to have used illicit drugs


A score of 4 had even more dire and sobering correlations:

  • 12x more likely to have attempted suicide
  • Over 7x more likely to consider themselves an alcoholic
  • 390% higher risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  • 10x more likely to use illicit drugs
  • Twice as likely to be addicted to nicotine
  • 460% more likely to suffer from depression


In a more recent study, they found that when people had a score of 6 or more, the consequences were fatal. A person with 6 or more ACEs dies, on average, 20 years earlier than someone with 0. The effects of ACEs go far beyond health concerns.

Economic impact of ACEs

With problems reconciling fears, stress, and ambition, people suffering from ACEs can fail to secure financial stability and steady employment. While certainly a major strain on their own lives, this lack of financial support also puts a strain on the American economy. ACEs cost the economy $124 billion in over the lifetime of all those affected by ACEs including, $83.5 billion in productivity losses and $25 billion spent for health care to combat the effects of ACEs. Child maltreatment and domestic abuse combined cost the economy roughly $500 billion a year. Health is certainly the #1 concern in combating ACEs, but the benefits of uncovering and treating ACEs are indefinite.

Signs you or your child are impacted by ACEs

Possibly just knowing what ACEs are will help you determine if you or someone you know is impacted by ACEs. But for those more underlying and not talked about experiences look for the following ACE effects. Many suffering from Complex PTSD, ACEs, and child trauma feel physical effects that can disrupt daily life:

Suffering from numerous health problems |  Alcohol and/or illicit drug abuse | Poor sleep habits | Dealing with never-ending money management issues

More often than not these are coupled with emotional and social deficiencies. These issues consistently get in the way of victims’ ambitions and goals and can put a strain on their relationships.

  • Unable to control emotions and moods
  • Depression and/or living in isolation
  • Constantly worrying about just surviving and not enjoying life
  • Problems controlling anger and aggression
  • Unmotivated unless presented with severe consequences
  • Believing that bad things happen to you on purpose
  • Viewing humans as threats, not friends


87% of people with ACEs in Anda’s test had multiple types of trauma. That means only 13% had an isolated type of ACE. It appears that when someone has an ACE, many more are soon to follow. With multiple types of trauma, come multiple types of negative effects.



Therapists stress that the view should not be “Why are you behaving like this?” but “What happened to you?” If you or someone you know struggles with any of the above-mentioned concerns, take a look at the ACE test. It could lead to a path of recovery or at least an understanding of what events impacted the person you are today.

How you can prevent ACEs from damaging lives

Sometimes ACEs are unavoidable. Children will undoubtedly find themselves in adverse situations where they need to use that “Fight or Flight” adrenaline rush. But when coupled with protective and positive childhood experiences, adverse events can actually help children develop resilience. The first step is creating an open dialogue between children and caring adults. There needs to be a trust between you and the child. They need a safe and loving environment where they can rid themselves of stresses and just be a kid.

Positive Childhood Experiences

It is vital to give your children positive life experiences and work with them to develop healthy self-regulation. Some of these include:

  • Reading and talking with your child
  • Providing good nutrition and plentiful sleep
  • Giving them an understanding of what is in their control
  • Working with them towards goals
  • Developing effective problem solving skills with your child


Teaching Self-Control

As they are still developing self-regulation and responses to stress, show and explain to them proper coping and conflict resolution techniques:

  • Direct them away from yelling and violent behavior
  • Limit exposure to violence in media
  • Discuss collaboration and compromising
  • Empathizing with others


While there is no cure-all for deafening the impact of ACEs, providing children with positive childhood experiences can dramatically limit some potentially fatal ACE effects. Resilience to negative events and an understanding that there are positive things in life are vital to living a fruitful life. For adults living with the effects of ACEs, you’re not alone. A benefit of the recent understanding of ACEs is that many people are finding the courage and strength to overcome roadblocks from their childhood trauma. The dialogue is open; please join in. A study on ACEs and their connection to problems with self-control stated,

“Innovative policies that put self-control center stage might reduce a panoply of costs that now heavily burden citizens and governments.”

Join the ACEs Connection Network

ACEs Response Toolkit

Resources from The National Child Traumatic Stress Network